For geographic and demographic information on the census-designated place Orleans, please see the article Orleans (CDP), Massachusetts.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 22.7 square miles (58.7 km2), of which 14.1 square miles (36.6 km2) is land and 8.5 square miles (22.0 km2), or 37.59%, is water. Orleans is bordered by Eastham to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, Pleasant Bay and the town of Chatham to the south, Harwich to the southwest, Brewster to the west, and Cape Cod Bay to the northwest.
Orleans is 27 miles (43 km) south of Provincetown, 22 miles (35 km) east of Barnstable, 36 miles (58 km) east of the Sagamore Bridge, and 90 miles (140 km) southeast of Boston. Orleans is located on the inner "elbow" section of Cape Cod. The town is dotted with bogs and ponds in the western part of town, with many inlets, islands and harbors along the eastern coast of the town, including Town Cove, Nauset Harbor, Pleasant Bay, and Little Pleasant Bay. Rock Harbor, bounded by and shared with the town of Eastham, is located in the "crease" of the inner elbow and provides boating access to Cape Cod Bay. Cape Cod National Seashore lies along the coast as well.